Pine Tip Moth larvae?

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Pine Tip Moth larvae?

Post  Chris Cochrane on Wed Jun 16, 2010 6:01 pm

This colorful fellow (6 mm, orange coat, sable head) was found in the hollowed end of a new branch tip. I've had several similar losses in Scots Pine & Red Pine bonsai material in the last few weeks... and would like to discourage further dead needle clusters attached to hollow branch tips.

The trees have each received Malathion for what I thought were adelgids at emerging needle clusters, but this appears to be a member of the culprit attackers.

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Re: Pine Tip Moth larvae?

Post  Dave Martin on Mon Jun 21, 2010 3:40 pm

Late last year together with a group I collected two lodge pole pines. In Feb/March this year i noticed a small catapillar/larvae on one of the candle tips. Some weeks later I found another 10! On examination all had burrowed into the base of the candles and were eating them inside out. When I looked again I saw that last years candles were covered in dried resinwhere these little bugs had burrowed in during last years growing season. Returning to the site most of the trees bore the marks of a similar infestation.

I initially tried to treat them with Provado Bug Killer, but eventually destroyed the trees in case they transferred to my other Scots pines.

Everyone who collected trees has the same on their trees and are trying to kill these pests. The colour of the ones in our trees is a khaki colour they start off at 1/16" diam and 3/8" long but grow to at least 1/2" long. I don't know if they could be the larvae of a saw fly? (these have three legs on the first set as opposed to a catapillar which a pair of legs)







The last picture shows the damage to the candle sorry its out of focus Embarassed

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Re: Pine Tip Moth larvae?

Post  Chris Cochrane on Tue Jun 22, 2010 1:20 am

Hi Dave... Great photos & an eeriely familiar description. I think you'd have to kill me before destroying my Scots Pine, and I would fight hard to retain my Red Pine, which seems most susceptible. At the moment, there is no obvious sign of the Pine Tip Moth larvae. I have sprayed twice this year (spring and early summer) with Malathion-- primarily to fight adelgids which was probably my incorrect reading of the Pine Tip Moth problem. Orthene & one of the homeowner listed Sevin compounds (SOW?) are recommended for the Pine Tip Moth on 2 state extension service websites-- one in Oklahoma-- for control of the Nantucket Pine Tip Moth. Much more is written about forest control which must be timed precisely to 5 days (in clear weather) or 10 days (in wet weather) after the moths reach maximum number in the forest. Of course, weather is likely a changing thing. I have yet to capture one of these moths with a sticky trap.

Thanks for sharing. I am very sorry to hear of your Ponderosa pine losses.

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Re: Pine Tip Moth larvae?

Post  nguyen75 on Wed Jun 30, 2010 4:58 pm

Chris Cochrane wrote:This colorful fellow (6 mm, orange coat, sable head) was found in the hollowed end of a new branch tip. I've had several similar losses in Scots Pine & Red Pine bonsai material in the last few weeks... and would like to discourage further dead needle clusters attached to hollow branch tips.

The trees have each received Malathion for what I thought were adelgids at emerging needle clusters, but this appears to be a member of the culprit attackers.
hi chris i have same problem to .most of my JBP but not red pine , i try seaching over the net but can pind a tip of help No Idea if you can pind out what it and where it come from pm me plz

here one of them

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Re: Pine Tip Moth larvae?

Post  Chris Cochrane on Wed Jun 30, 2010 6:46 pm

Hi Nguyen... If you Google search "pine tip moth orthene" or "Nantucket Pine Tip Moth," there will be extension service websites recommending treatment. For homeowners (not professionals), I think they recommend "Orthene" and other chemical sprays. BTW, nice photos of nasty critters!

From South Dakota site:
Common name: Pine tip moth
Scientific name: Rhyacionia
Species affected: Ponderosa, Austrian, or Scots pine
Where it occurs: generally occurs in southeastern South Dakota
Symptoms: Symptoms are dead and dying new shoots with expanded needles. Brown to orange larvae (3/8 ") found in shoots during the summer.
Control Recommendations: Treat with acephate (Orthene), bendicarb (Turcam*), or dimethoate (Cygon) just as needles begin to expand. Several generations per year so additional treatments may be needed in late June and July.
From Colorado site:
Numerous natural enemies of tip moths exist and often reduce infestations to acceptable levels. In particular, various parasitic wasps develop within tip moth larvae, killing a large percentage of the population. As a result of these natural controls, tip moth infestations can vary widely from season to season. Trees taller than 10 feet often become less susceptible to tip moth injuries.

If necessary, tip moths can be controlled with insecticides. Pyrethroid insecticides that are labeled for use on shade trees, such as products containing bifenthrin, permethrin, or lambda-cyhalothrin, can be very effective against exposed larvae. The systemic insecticide acephate (Orthene) may kill small larvae that have already begun to tunnel into pine tips.

Proper timing is very important. Apply treatments for the southwestern pine tip moth when new shoots are elongating but before the needles are more than 1/2 inch long ("candling stage") (Figure 3). For most pines, this typically occurs from late April through early May.

Treatment timing for the pinyon tip moth is less well known. Thorough insecticide treatment in May should be effective if applied to new growth before overwintering Dioryctria larvae enter buds. Somewhat later treatments can still be effective at killing larvae moving from buds to developing shoots. Midsummer applications coinciding with egg laying in late July appear to be most appropriate for pitch nodule moth control.
Malathion was not recommended but I have used it twice to apparent (though temporary) effect. I may use it if needed, again, but suggest getting the recommended sprays.

Our bonsai club president Randi Sharp told me this week that she destroyed a pine bonsai which got many of these last year. I would remove larvae & spray. Note I am NO EXPERT at pest control & believe following precautions on whatever chemical that you use.

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Re: Pine Tip Moth larvae?

Post  nguyen75 on Wed Jun 30, 2010 8:03 pm

here what i found over the net by W.S. Cranshaw 1 (12/08)
Quick Facts...
Pinyon showing evidence of repeated pinyon tip moth injuries.
Figure 1: Pinyon showing evidence of repeated pinyon tip moth injuries.

* Tip moths are caterpillars that feed on and kill back new growth of various pines.
* Damage by tip moths is conspicuous but rarely threatens tree health.
* The southwestern pine tip moth that commonly infests Scotch, ponderosa and mugho pines is best controlled with insecticides applied as new needles are elongating.
* Tip moths on pinyon pine overwinter in or on the terminal growth of the tree.

Pine tip moths feed on and destroy new growth (terminals) of pines grown throughout most of Colorado. Injury often is quite conspicuous, and infested plants may appear unattractive. Although little real injury to the health of the infested tree results from pine tip moth attacks, tree growth can be delayed and the form altered to a bushier appearance.
Southwestern pine tip moth adult
Figure 2: Southwestern pine tip moth adult, Rhyacionia neomexicana.

Tip moth injury can be diagnosed during early to midsummer by examining suspect shoots that have dried and shriveled. At this time, the damaging stage of the insect or old discarded skins can be detected. If the insect is not present, examine the damaged terminal growth to see if there is evidence of the internal tunneling typical of most tip moth injuries.
Insects Involved

The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Figure 1), is the species mainly responsible for damage to young ponderosa, mugho and Scotch pines. Other tip moths in the same genus (R. bushnelli, R. zozana, R. fumosana) are found in the state but are much less common and damaging than the southwestern pine tip moth.

A different set of tip moths infests pinyon pine. Tip moths in the genus Dioryctria (primarily D. albovitella) damage pinyon in a manner typical of other tip moths, although it often is associated with a pinkish mass of pitch. Damage by another species, the pinyon pitch nodule moth (Petrova arizonensis), is more distinctive and produces a large, smooth nodule of purple-brown pitch as it feeds on pinyon terminals.
Life History

Pine tip moths have typical moth life histories, passing through four life stages: egg, larva or caterpillar, pupa and adult moth. It is the feeding of the larval stage that damages the trees (Figure 2). New infestations originate with eggs laid by the adult female moths, one generation per year.

The southwestern pine tip moth lays its eggs on buds and new shoots of pines in April and May. Eggs hatch about the time new shoots emerge from buds. The tiny larvae immediately begin to bore into the fresh young shoot tissue. The larvae feed and grow within the developing shoots through May, June and July, causing tip growth to die back beyond the feeding site.
Tip damage
Figure 3: Tip damage from larvae of pinyon pine tip moths.

When feeding is completed, the full-grown caterpillar leaves the shoot to crawl down the trunk. On the side of the trunk, just below the soil line, it forms a white, paste-like, silken cocoon for pupating over the winter. Adult moths emerge the following spring on return of warm weather.

Tip moths infesting pinyon overwinter as partially grown larvae either in stem tissue or on the bark. The common tip moth (D. albovitella) lays its eggs during midsummer. The larvae emerge shortly afterwards but do not feed. Instead, they form a silken cocoon (hibernacula) on the bark for the winter.

The larvae resume activity in May, boring into the base of unopened buds. Often the larvae destroy the initially infested bud and move to a new shoot or developing cone, which they also mine. Irregular pitch masses often form at the injury site, superficially resembling those of the pinyon pitch nodule moth. Pupation occurs within the infested area, with the adult moths emerging to mate and lay eggs.

The pinyon pitch nodule moth lays eggs on the base of needles during early summer after the new growth has formed. Eggs hatch by early August, and the young caterpillars tunnel into a new shoot. While feeding, they form a distinctive, smooth, silk-lined pitch nodule and spend the winter as an almost full-grown caterpillar. They pupate wedged in an opening in the nodule.
Shoot elongation
Figure 4: Stage of shoot elongation to apply insecticide treatment for southwestern pine tip moth control.
Control

Numerous natural enemies of tip moths exist and often reduce infestations to acceptable levels. In particular, various parasitic wasps develop within tip moth larvae, killing a large percentage of the population. As a result of these natural controls, tip moth infestations can vary widely from season to season. Trees taller than 10 feet often become less susceptible to tip moth injuries.

If necessary, tip moths can be controlled with insecticides. Pyrethroid insecticides that are labeled for use on shade trees, such as products containing bifenthrin, permethrin, or lambda-cyhalothrin, can be very effective against exposed larvae. The systemic insecticide acephate (Orthene) may kill small larvae that have already begun to tunnel into pine tips.

Proper timing is very important. Apply treatments for the southwestern pine tip moth when new shoots are elongating but before the needles are more than 1/2 inch long ("candling stage") (Figure 3). For most pines, this typically occurs from late April through early May.


Pinyon tip moth larva exposed in terminal.
Figure 5: Pinyon tip moth larva exposed in terminal.

Treatment timing for the pinyon tip moth is less well known. Thorough insecticide treatment in May should be effective if applied to new growth before overwintering Dioryctria larvae enter buds. Somewhat later treatments can still be effective at killing larvae moving from buds to developing shoots. Midsummer applications coinciding with egg laying in late July appear to be most appropriate for pitch nodule moth control.
1 Colorado State University Extension entomologist and professor, bioagricultural sciences and pest management. 4/96. Revised 12/08.

http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/insect/05529.html <<------- and here the link

and other link from Curtis W. Smith, Ph.D., is an Extension Horticulture Specialist with New Mexico State University's Cooperative Extension Service. New Mexico State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and educator. http://aces.nmsu.edu/ces/yard/2002/042002.html

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